rumba on the river


1. Basil Davidson, The Story of Africa (London: Mitchell Beazley, 1984), 48.
2. Ibid.
3. Eric Axelson, Congo to Cape: Early Portuguese Explorers (London: Faber and Faber, 1973), 50.
4. Africa Pilot, vol. II, 11th ed. (London: Hydrographic Department, 1963), 202.
5. Axelson, 51.
6. Basil Davidson, The African Slave Trade (Boston: Little, Brown, 1980), 136. This work was originally titled Black Mother, 1961. Davidson writes that Cão's visit to Mbanza happened on a third expedition in 1487, but Axelson argues convincingly that Cão made only two voyages to the Congo River and probably died in 1486 before completing the second.
7. Ibid., 54.
8. Ibid., 57.
9. Ali Mazrui, The Africans: A Triple Heritage (Boston: Little, Brown, 1986), 103.
10. Alan Scholefield, The Dark Kingdoms: The Impact of White Civilization on Three Great African Monarchies (New York: William Morrow, 1975), 30-31.
11. Dom Affonso, quoted in Davidson, African Slave Trade, 159.
12. See Davidson, African Slave Trade, 76-92. Davidson claims (p. 78) total profits on the Great Circuit may have been as high as 300% per circuit.
13. Statistics on the slave trade are slippery at best. The figure of 20 million comes from Davidson, Story of Africa, p. 147; 5 million from the Congo area is from Davidson, African Slave Trade, p. 170. In the original edition of African Slave Trade, originally entitled Black Mother, Davidson estimated 50 million Africans had been landed alive, killed in the hunt, or died from the harsh conditions of captivity and shipment. His downward estimate is based on Curtin's exhaustive census of the slave trade. Curtin estimates that nine and one-half million slaves landed alive in the Americas (The Atlantic Slave Trade, p. 268). According to Curtin (p. 276), "The literature on the slave trade tends to put the mortality rate at sea somewhere between 13 per cent and 33 per cent." There is no way to know how many died in Africa as a result of the slave trade. Davidson says (African Slave Trade, p. 98), "It cannot have been less than several millions from first to last. It may have been many millions."
14. Quoted in Philip D. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), 282.
15. Reginald Coupland, Livingstone's Last Journey (London: Collins, 1945), 15.
16. Ibid., 13.
17. Ralph A. Austen, "The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade: A Tentative Census," in The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, ed. Henry A. Gemery and Jan S. Hogendorn (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 68. This figure may have been much higher. Davidson (African Slave Trade, p. 198) cites a British observer who, in 1839, "reckoned that between 40,000 and 45,000 slaves were being sold there [Zanzibar] every year."
18. Davidson, African Slave Trade, 200.
19. Coupland, 9.
20. Ibid., 16.
21. Henry Stanley, quoted in Richard Hall, Stanley: An Adventurer Explored (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975), 85.
22. Ibid.
23. Richard West, Congo (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972), 81. This work was originally published in England as Brazza of the Congo).
24. Ibid., 83.
25. Léon Gambetta, quoted in Hall, 243.
26. Henry Stanley, quoted in West, 101.
27. Ruth Slade, King Leopold's Congo (London: Oxford University Press, 1962), 9.
28. Ibid., 81.
29. Davidson, Story of Africa, 132.
30. See Basil Davidson, The Black Man's Burden (New York: Times Books, 1992), 10-13.
31. Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa (New York: Random House, 1991), 153.
32. Ibid., 246.
33. Hall, 264.
34. Leopold II, quoted in Slade, 175.
35. Pakenham, 411.
36. Slade, 101.
37. Ibid., 177-8.
38. John B. Murphy, quoted in West, 159.
39. E.D. Morel, History of the Congo Reform Movement, ed. Wm. Roger Louis and Jean Stengers (London: Oxford University Press, 1968), 74.
40. Ibid., 75.
41. West, 171.
42. Mazrui, 232.
43. Pakenham, 588.
44. Slade, 183.
45. Morel, 161.
46. West, 202.
47. Albert Londres, quoted in Virginia Thompson and Richard Adloff, The Emerging States of French Equatorial Africa, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1960), 18-19. West (p. 203) cites a study of official documents that arrives at a figure of 14,100 deaths.
48. G. Van der Kerken, quoted in Roger Anstey, King Leopold's Legacy (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), 49.
49. Anstey, 69-70.
50. Ibid., 92.
51. Efraim Andersson, Messianic Popular Movements in the Lower Congo, Studia Ethnographica Upsaliensia, XIV (Uppsala, 1958), 51.
52. Ibid., 57-58.
53. Scholefield, 46-47.
54. Marcel Sauvage, quoted in Thompson and Adloff, 20.
55. J. van Wing, quoted in Davidson, Story of Africa, 213.
56. United States No. 3 (1941), Joint Declaration by the President of the United States of America and Mr. Winston Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, known as the Atlantic Charter, August 14, 1941 (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1941).
57. Louis Marquet, quoted in Davidson, Story of Africa, 214.
58. Georges Balandier, Ambiguous Africa: Cultures in Collision (London: Chatto & Windus, 1966), 168-69.
59. J.S. La Fontaine, City Politics: A Study of Leopoldville, 1962-63 (London: Cambridge University Press, 1970), 19.
60. Balandier, 169.

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